Saturday, January 20, 2018

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The Republic of the Sudan is an independent, sovereign State. It is a democratic, decentralized, multi-cultural, multi-lingual, multi-racial, multi-ethnic and multi-religious country where such diversities co-exist.
The State is committed to the respect and promotion of human dignity and is founded on justice, equality and the advancement of human rights and fundamental freedoms and assures multi-partism.
The Sudan is an all embracing homeland where religions and cultures are sources of strength, harmony and inspiration.

Freedom of Assembly and Association
The right to peaceful assembly shall be guaranteed; every person shall have the right to freedom of association with others, including the right to form or join political parties, associations and trade or professional unions for the protection of his/her interests.
Formation and registration of political parties, associations and trade unions shall be regulated by law as is necessary in a democratic society.
No association shall function as a political party at national, Southern Sudan or State level unless it has:
(a) its membership open to any Sudanese irrespective of religion, ethnic origin or place of birth,
(b) a programme that does not contradict the provisions of the Constitution,
(c) democratically elected leadership and institutions,
(d) disclosed and transparent sources of funding.

The National Assembly
The current Sudanese Parliament is the fourth National Assembly established in accordance with Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) signed in Nivasha on 9th of January 2005, whereas Article (117) of the Interim National Constitution of the Republic of the Sudan 2005 stipulates that pending elections, the National Assembly shall be composed of four hundred and fifty members to be appointed according to seventy percent and thirty percent Northern/Southern ratio, as follows:
a) The National Congress Party shall be represented by fifty two percent (forty nine percent for Northerners and three percent for southerners).
b) Sudan People's Liberation Movement shall be represented by twenty eight percent (twenty one percent for southerners and seven percent for northerners.
c) Other northern political forces shall be represented by six percent.
d) Other southern political forces shall be represented by six percent.
The Assembly convened its first procedural sitting of the first session dated 29th January 2005 and elected H.E. Mr. Ahmed Ibrahim El-Tahir as the Speaker as well as Mr. Ateem Gerang a Deputy Speaker, in a sitting headed by the older member wherein the members took the constitutional oath.
The Assembly resumes its legislative, control and mobilization functions through (19) Standing specialized committees each of which is composed of a number of Assembly members chaired by one of the members elected by the Assembly with the nomination of his Speaker. Ad hoc committees may be composed to achieve some functions requir5ed by the Assembly business, and its period ends upon the completion of its functions.
The Minister of Parliamentary Affairs who is appointed by the President of the Republic as a minister, assumes in addition to his parliamentary duties as a member as well as a leader for Assembly deliberations, the coordination between the Presidency and the Assembly, added to the executive power that the Assembly knowing that H.E. Joseph Okilo is the incumbent Minister of Coordination of Assembly Affairs.
The General Secretariat with the chairmanship of the Secretary General appointed by the Speaker with approval of the Assembly undertakes executive, administrative, financial and service business of the Assembly.
The legal adviser appointed by the Speaker assumes legal consultation of the Assembly legislative drafting and technical legal matters with the cooperation of a number of legal experts.
The National Assembly last 3 years with two convening sessions per year, the period of each is 3 months, while the control and mobilization is in function during recess through the standing committees of the Assembly.

The Federal Council of Ministers (Federal Executive Branch)
The council of ministers is appointed by the president. It accordingly sets the federal ministerial responsibilities and tasks for the federal executive branch. Together with the president, it constitutes the highest federal executive body. The president of the republic also appoints the states' governors and ministers.
Federalism: Sudan adopted the federal system as the basis of rule in accordance to the recommendations of the National Conference for Peace (1989). Federalism has always been contemplated, since the fifties, as a possible solution to the issues of the civil war in the South. The consecutive Constitutional Directives which established this system, determined the states, and laid down the outlines for interrelations between the various federal and state bodies and forming these bodies. Sudan is presently divided into 26 state. The Federal Government Bureau was established by the Fourth Constitutional Directive to take charge of coordination duties between the various organs and bodies.The Government of National Unity
According to the national Constitution(2005), the Government of National Unity, was setup in September 2005 and a general multiparty election will be held in 2008 – 2009. The Government of National Unity will implement the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, reflecting the need for inclusiveness , the promotion of national unity and the protection of national sovereignty.
Omar al-Bashir, current President of SudanOfficially, the politics of Sudan takes place, in the framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, where the President of Sudan is Head of State, Head of Government and Commander-in-Chief of the Sudanese Armed Forces in a multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in both the government and in the two chambers, the National Assembly (lower) and the Council of States (upper), of the bicameral National Legislature. The judiciary is independent and obtained by the Constitutional Court.
However, following a deadly civil war and the now low scale war in Darfur, Sudan is widely recognized as an authoritarian state where all effective political power is obtained by President Omar al-Bashir and the ruling National Congress Party (NCP). The political system of the Republic of Sudan was restructured following a military coup on 30 June 1989, when Omar al-Bashir, then a colonel in the Sudanese Army, led a group of officers and ousted the government of Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi. Under al-Bashir's leadership, the new military government suspended political parties and introduced an Islamic legal code on the national level.
He then became Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (a newly established body with legislative and executive powers for what was described as a transitional period), and assumed the posts of chief of state, prime minister, chief of the armed forces, and minister of defense. Further on, after institutionalizing Sharia law in the northern part of the country along with Hassan al-Turabi, al-Bashir issued purges and executions in the upper ranks of the army, the banning of associations, political parties, and independent newspapers and the imprisonment of leading political figures and journalists.
In 1993, Sudan was transformed into an Islamic authoritarian single-party state as al-Bashir abolished the Revolutionary Command Council and created the National Islamic Front (NIF) with a new parliament and government obtained solely by members of the NIF. At the same time, the structure of regional administration was replaced by the creation of twenty-six states, each headed by a governor, thus making Sudan a federal republic. As a result, the civil war with the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) would only escalate in the following years.
Following the signing of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between the government of Omar al-Bashir and the SPLA, a Government of National Unity was installed in Sudan in accordance with the Interim Constitution whereby a co-Vice President position representing the south was created in addition to the northern Sudanese Vice President. This allowed the north and south to split oil deposits equally, but also left both the north's and south's armies in place. Following the Darfur Peace Agreement, the office of senior Presidential advisor was allocated to Minni Minnawi, a Zaghawa of the Sudanese Liberation Army (SLA), and this thus became the fourth highest constitutional post.
Executive posts are divided between the National Congress Party (NCP), the Sudan People's Liberation Army, Eastern Front and factions of the Umma Party and Democratic Unionist Party (DUP). This peace agreement with the rebel group Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) granted Southern Sudan autonomy for six years, to be followed by a referendum about independence in 2011.
According to the new 2005 constitution, the bicameral National Legislature is the official Sudanese parliament, and is divided between two chambers; the National Assembly, a lower house with 450 seats, and the Council of States, an upper house with 50 seats. Thus the parliament consists of 500 appointed members altogether, where all are indirectly elected by state legislatures to serve six-year terms.
Despite his international arrest warrant, Omar al-Bashir was a candidate in the 2010 Sudanese presidential election, the first democratic election with multiple political parties participating in 24 years. In the build-up to the vote Sudanese pro-democracy activists say they faced intimidation by the government  and the International Crisis Group reported that the ruling party had gerrymandered electoral districts. A few days before the vote the main opposition candidate, Yasir Arman from the SPLM, withdrew from the race. The U.S.-based Carter Center, which helped monitor the elections, described the vote tabulation process as “highly chaotic, non- transparent and vulnerable to electoral manipulation." Al-Bashir was declared the winner of the election with 68% of the vote. There is considerable concern amongst the international community of a return to violence in the run-up to the southern Sudan referendum in January, with post-referendum issues such as oil revenue sharing and border demarcation not yet resolved.
Foreign relations
Sudan has had a troubled relationship with many of its neighbours and much of the international community owing to what is viewed as its aggressively Islamic stance. For much of the 1990s, Uganda, Kenya and Ethiopia formed an ad-hoc alliance called the "Front Line States" with support from the United States to check the influence of the National Islamic Front government.
Beginning from the mid-1990s Sudan gradually began to moderate its positions as a result of increased US pressure following the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings and the new development of oil fields previously in rebel hands. Sudan also has a territorial dispute with Egypt over the Hala'ib Triangle. Since 2003, the foreign relations of Sudan have centred on the support for ending the Second Sudanese Civil War and condemnation of government support for militias in the Darfur conflict.
The United States has listed Sudan as a state sponsor of terrorism since 1993. U.S. firms have been barred from doing business in Sudan since 1997. In 1998, the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in Khartoum was destroyed by a US cruise missile strike because of its alleged production of chemical weapons and links to al-Qaeda. Sudan has extensive economic relations with China. China gets 10% of its oil from Sudan, and according to a former Sudanese government minister, China is Sudan’s largest supplier of arms.
On 23 December 2005, Chad, Sudan's neighbour to the west, declared war on Sudan and accused the country of being the "common enemy of the nation [Chad]." This happened after the 18 December attack on Adré, which left about 100 people dead. A statement issued by Chadian government on 23 December, accused Sudanese militias of making daily incursions into Chad, stealing cattle, killing people and burning villages on the Chadian border. The statement went on to call for Chadians to form a patriotic front against Sudan.
The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) have called on Sudan and Chad to exercise self-restraint to defuse growing tensions between the two countries. On 11 May 2008 Sudan announced it was cutting diplomatic relations with Chad, claiming that it was helping rebels in Darfur to attack the Sudanese capital Khartoum. On 27 December 2005, Sudan became one of the few states to recognize Moroccan sovereignty over Western Sahara.
On 20 June 2006 President Omar al-Bashir told reporters that he would not allow any UN peacekeeping force into Sudan. President al-Bashir denounced any such mission as "colonial forces." On 17 November 2006, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan announced that "Sudan has agreed in principle to allow the establishment of a joint African Union and UN peacekeeping force in an effort to solve the crisis in Darfur" – but had stopped short of setting the number of troops involved. Annan speculated that this force could number 17,000.
Despite this claim, no additional troops have been deployed as of late December 2006. On 31 July 2007 the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1769, authorizing the deployment of UN forces. Violence continues in the region and on 15 December 2006, prosecutors at the International Criminal Court (ICC) stated they would be proceeding with cases of human rights violations against members of the Sudan government. A Sudanese legislator was quoted as saying that Khartoum may permit UN peacekeepers to patrol Darfur in exchange for immunity from prosecution for officials charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity.

Armed forces
The Sudan People's Armed Forces is the regular forces of the Republic of Sudan and is divided into five branches; the Sudanese Army, Sudanese Navy (including the Marine Corps), Sudanese Air Force, Border Patrol and the Popular Defence Force, totalling about 200,000 troops. The military of Sudan has become very well equipped fighting force, thanks to increasing local production of heavy and advanced arms. These forces are under the command of the National Assembly and its strategic principles include defending Sudan’s external borders and preserve internal security.
However, since the Darfur crisis in 2004, safe-keeping the central government from the armed resistance and rebellion of paramilitary rebel groups such as the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), the Sudanese Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) have been important priorities.


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History: Land of the oldest human civilization, kush or meroetic kingdom (800BC - 320 )
Location: An Afro-Arab country, situated in heart of Africa, dominated by river Nile
Capital: Khartoum
Area: 1.882 million sq. miles
Population: 36 million, with 2.6 % growth rate
Climate: Ranges between Tropical in South, desert in North
Currency: Sudanese Pound
Official language: Arabic, english as a second langauge
Religions: Islam, Christianity

Sudan Map