Saturday, January 20, 2018

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Sudan is situated in northern Africa, with a 853 km (530 mi) coastline bordering the Red Sea. With an area of 2,505,810 km2 (967,499 sq mi), it is the largest country on the continent and the tenth largest in the world. The terrain is generally flat plains, broken by several mountain ranges; in the west the Jebel Marra is the highest range; in the south is the highest mountain Mount Kinyeti Imatong (3,187 m/10,456 ft), near the border with Uganda; in the east are the Red Sea Hills.
The Blue and White Niles meet in Khartoum to form the River Nile, which flows northwards through Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea. Blue Nile's course through Sudan is nearly 800 km (497 mi) long and is joined by the rivers Dinder and Rahad between Sennar and Khartoum. The White Nile within Sudan has no significant tributaries.
The amount of rainfall increases towards the south. In the north there is the very dry Nubian Desert; in the south there are swamps and rainforest. Sudan’s rainy season lasts for about three months (July to September) in the north, and up to six months (June to November) in the south. The dry regions are plagued by sandstorms, known as haboob, which can completely block out the sun. In the northern and western semi-desert areas, people rely on the scant rainfall for basic agriculture and many are nomadic, travelling with their herds of sheep and camels. Nearer the River Nile, there are well-irrigated farms growing cash crops.
There are several dams on the Blue and White Niles. Among them are the Sennar and Roseires on the Blue Nile, and Jebel Aulia Dam on the White Nile. There is also Lake Nubia on the Sudanese-Egyptian border.
Rich mineral resources are available in Sudan including: petroleum, natural gas, gold, silver, chromite, asbestos, manganese, gypsum, mica, zinc, iron, lead, uranium, copper, kaolin, cobalt, granite, nickel and tin.
Desertification is a serious problem in Sudan. There is also concern over soil erosion. Agricultural expansion, both public and private, has proceeded without conservation measures. The consequences have manifested themselves in the form of deforestation, soil desiccation, and the lowering of soil fertility and the water table.
The nation's wildlife is threatened by hunting. As of 2001, twenty-one mammal species and nine bird species are endangered, as well as two species of plants. Endangered species include: the waldrapp, Northern White Rhinoceros, Tora Hartebeest, Slender-horned Gazelle, and hawksbill turtle. The Sahara oryx has become extinct in the wild.
In May 2007, it was announced that hundreds of wild elephants had been located on a previously unknown, treeless island in the Sudd swampland region of southern Sudan. The exact location was being kept secret to protect the animals from poachers.


Sudan is mainly composed of extensive plains or ironstone soils in the South, clay in the central regions and sand in the North and West. There are few mountainous areas of which the principal ones are the Imatong in the South, Jebel Marra in the West, and the Red Sea Hilis'lin the East.
The major vegetation zones in Sudan are desert, semi-desert, woodland savanna : the on clay and woodland savanna on sand, woodland derived recently from the rainforest, the flood region and montane vegetation. The arid and semi-arid areas constitute more than 60% of the area of the country. The desert covers about 700,000 square kilometres, or more than one quarter of the country. The total area of the semi-desert vegetation covers about 478,000 square kilometres. The total area of low rainfall savanna on clay covers about 122,000 square kilometres.
The wide variety of vegetation types in Sudan is reflected in its fauna. Out of the 13 mammalian orders in Africa, 12 can be found in Sudan. 1,931 species of birds were recorded in Sudan. Equally diversified is the fish fauna, the most significant of which are that of the Nile. The Nile is geologically old and has a distinctive "Nilotic" fauna, which includes relatively few species (24 families and 106 species). Similarly, the insect fauna of Sudan is very diversified; it is estimated that there are at least 100 species of insect pests in Sudan.


The vast land of Sudan that extends from latitudes 4 to 22 North, ranging from desert to semi-desert, savanna, subtropics, tropical forests and coastal environments. Roughly, it can be divided into three main regions:
The desert belt: The northern 30% of the country is desert or semi-desert, with rocks at or near the surface covered by thin poor soil.
The semi-desert belt: South of the desert belt and typical of the western part of the country, this is an area of undulating sand dunes dotted with vegetation. Isolated highlands, such as the Marra Mountain and the Nuba Mountains are also part of this terrain.
The clay plain: This covers the greater part of country, including the whole of southern, central and eastern part of the country.
Mountains: Five distinct mountain ranges and plateaus characterize the relief of the landmass of Sudan. Among these are the mountain ranges of the (Red Sea Hills) in the northeast and the mountain forest plateau of (Imatong) in the south. (Mountain Marra) is a sprawling highland of over 10,000 feet above sea level in the southwest and west of Sudan. (AI Meidob) cluster of mountains stands in the furthest north of western state of Darfur. Finally, there are (Nuba Mountains) which are located in the rich rainy savanna belt of Southern Kordofan.


As Sudan lies wholly within the tropics, it has a tropical climate. The greater part of the country falls under the influence of the trade winds; hence, it has generally hot, rainy summers and warm, dry winters. Because of its huge area, there is a great variation in rain, where it scarcely rains in the north; the average rainfall is 25 mm. Whereas in the south it Gabal Marra reaches up to 1500mm.
The amount of rainfall decreases from about 1500 mm. in the South to less than 25 mm. in the Northern extremity. The duration of the rainy season and rainfall and its reliability increases from North to South. Rainfall exhibits wide range of variability from 20% in the South to 100% in the North.
The main rainy season is July to September but occasional showers fall in May- June particularly in the higher rainfall areas in the South. The Red Sea Hills receive Monsoon rains during the months of October and November.
There is little rain in the far north and central regions, occurring mostly in July and August. Between April and October, severe sandstorms, or "Haboubs", blow frequently in the northern part of the country. On the other hand, in the south, the rainy season is much heavier and lasts from May through October.
March through June are characterized by high temperatures, reaching up to 42 degrees Centigrade at daytime and 27 degrees Centigrade during the night. July through October are mild and benign, with the commencement of the rainy season. November through February are temperate with short cold breezy spells, bringing the temperature to 30 degrees Centigrade at daytime and to less than 16 degrees Centigrade at night.
The Nile

The waters of the Nile gather from many countries - Tanzania, Kenya, Congo, Uganda and Ethiopia, form the River Nile. The contribution of Sudan and that of Egypt is negligible. Of the total volume, 84% comes from Ethiopia and 16% from the lake plateau of central Africa. The Nile Basin covers an area of 1,100,000 square miles, roughly one tenth of the area of Africa.
The main Nile is formed by the confluence of the White and Blue Niles at Khartoum State, north of the Bridge of Shambat, between the towns of Omdurman and Khartoum North. For the 1,880 miles from Khartoum to the Mediterranean, it receives no perennial tributaries and is believed to be the longest stretch of river in the world.
There are no other regular tributaries. The Atbara River, which joins the main Nile 200 miles north of Khartoum, carries large volumes of water when it is in spate, but is dry for more than half the year. In the 950 miles of its course in Sudan, there are a number of cataracts, some of which with a great potential for the development of hydroelectric power on a large scale. Height above sea level: The average height of the Nile is 350 meters above sea level.
Because of the Aswan Dam, a huge lake has formed south of the dam and into Sudanese land in the Wadi Halfa area where it is called the Nubian Lake.

The White and the Blue Nile

The White Nile: flows for a distance of 2,265 miles, has various names in its upper reaches. Its most remote source is the Luveronza River, which rises in Tanzania about 4,200 miles south of the Mediterranean Sea. The Luveronza joins the Kagera River, where they flow into LakeVictoria. From this great freshwater lake (the second largest in the world), the only outlet is the Victoria Nile, which reaches swampy Lake Kioga through a series of rapids. After another series of falls, of which the Murchison is the last and most spectacular, the Victoria Nile passes through Lake Alberta. Entering Sudan at Nimule, about 3,100 miles from the sea, the river is now known as Bahr El Jebel. For the next hundred miles, there is yet another series of rapids and then the river embarks on a long journey through the Great Plains of Sudan. After winding through papyrus swamps for over 400 miles, Bahr El Jebel reaches Lake No, where Bahr El Ghazal joins it from the west. From this point onwards, the main stream is known as the White Nile; its total length from Lake No to Khartoum is about 600 miles. After about 80 miles from Lake No, it is joined by Sobat River, which runs down from the mountains of Ethiopia. There are no other tributaries of any importance of the White Nile between there and Khartoum. The Blue Nile: originates from Lake Tana, which lies on the Ethiopian plateau about 1,000 miles from Khartoum. Its course in Sudan is nearly 500 miles long and is joined by the rivers Dinder and Rahad between Sennar and Khartoum.

Tributaries of the White Nile, Blue Nile and the Nile

White Nile: Rivers Bahr El Ghazal and Sobat near Malakal Town.

Blue Nile: Rivers Dinder and Rahad near Wad Medani Town.
River Nile: River Atbara near Ed Damer Town.
Nile lakes: Lake Nubia, on the Sudanese- Egyptian border.
Dams: There are several dams on the Blue and White Niles. Among them are the Sennar and Roseires on the Blue Nile, and Jebel Aulia on the White Nile.

Natural Resources

Sudan is rich in natural resources, featured as:
Vast arable lands, suitable for cultivation, estimated at 200 million feddans.
Extensive areas of forests, acacia trees and pastures, occupying almost 250 million feddans.
A large reserve of cattle and sheep estimated at more than 100 million heads, with cattle estimated at 30 million, sheep 37 million, goats 33 million and camels 3 million.
Huge water resources in terms of river waters, rainfall together with vast underground water reservoirs.
The diverse climatic conditions across all parts of the country, which makes it suitable for the cultivation of various crops and fruits the whole year round.
Rich mineral resources, which have not been fully exploited or explored up to date.


In addition to petroleum and natural gas, they include: gold, silver, chrome, asbestos, manganese, gypsum, mica, zinc, iron, lead, uranium, copper, kaolin, cobalt, granite, nickel and tin.


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History: Land of the oldest human civilization, kush or meroetic kingdom (800BC - 320 )
Location: An Afro-Arab country, situated in heart of Africa, dominated by river Nile
Capital: Khartoum
Area: 1.882 million sq. miles
Population: 36 million, with 2.6 % growth rate
Climate: Ranges between Tropical in South, desert in North
Currency: Sudanese Pound
Official language: Arabic, english as a second langauge
Religions: Islam, Christianity

Sudan Map