Saturday, January 20, 2018

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Sudanese culture melds the behaviors, practices, and beliefs of about 578 tribes, communicating in 145 different languages, in a region microcosmic of Africa, with geographic extremes varying from sandy desert to tropical forest.
Sudan is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world. It has nearly 200 ethnic groups speaking over 900 languages and dialects, though some of Sudan's smaller ethnic and linguistic groups have disappeared, especially in the 1980s and 1990s. Migration of various groups played a part, as migrants often forget their native tongue when they move to an area dominated by another language. Some linguistic groups were absorbed by accommodation, others by conflict. In all of this, however, due to the strong Arabic cultural influence in the country, particularly in the northern part of the country, the Sudanese dialect of Arabic is the lingua franca spoken amongst Sudanese peoples, though the English language may be spoken among the Sudanese elite and portions of the Sudanese populace. Many Sudanese are multilingual.
Sudan has various faiths and beliefs, the main ones being Islam, Christianity, and indigenous faiths. In the north and central parts of Sudan, Islam dominates religious life along the Niger with adherence to Quranic statues and laws being fervent, if not devout. Towards the south of Sudan, one will find a more pagan and Christian influence expressed in the lives of the local populace, though Islam is not altogether absent. Christianity finds itself practiced in various forms of faith, ranging from Catholic to Anglican to other forms of Christian belief. Such faith may be practiced purely Christian or influenced by pre-Christian, traditional beliefs depending on the individual follower. The various heathen peoples of the Sudan also perform rites and customs sacred to their beliefs and deities. Such rites and beliefs are not systemized in a set of dotrinal rules, statues or holy texts, but are rather passed down orally by the tribal community from one generation to the new generation. A person can be counted as a member of his or her faith as the result of being born in his or her ethnic group. Each ethnic group has a faith which, though may share elements of rituals and beliefs with sister tribes, is unique to that particular ethnic group. Believing and acting in a religious mode, rather than being thought of as a separate human action, is part of daily life and is linked to the social, political, economic, and relationships of the group.
Sudan has a rich and unique musical culture that has been through chronic instability and repression during the modern history of Sudan. Beginning with the imposition of strict sharia law in 1989, many of the country's most prominent poets, like Mahjoub Sharif, were imprisoned while others, like Mohammed el Amin (returned to Sudan in mid of 1990s) and Mohammed Wardi (returned to Sudan 2003), fled to Cairo. Traditional music suffered too, with traditional Zar ceremonies being interrupted and drums confiscated. At the same time, however, the European militaries contributed to the development of Sudanese music by introducing new instruments and styles; military bands, especially the Scottish bagpipes, were renowned, and set traditional music to military march music. The march March Shulkawi No 1, is an example, set to the sounds of the Shilluk.
The Nuba, on the front lines between the north and the south of Sudan, have retained a vibrant folk tradition. The musical harvest festival Kambala is still a major part of Nuba culture. The Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) include a group called the Black Stars, a unit dedicated to "cultural advocacy and performance". Members include the guitarist and singer Ismael Koinyi, as well as Jelle, Jamus and Tahir Jezar
The most popular sport in Sudan is Football and Althetics .Sudan has a rich history in football.They were one of the countries with Egypt,Ethiopia and south africa to form african football. Sudan have won the African Cup Of Nations once in 1970 and hosted the first african cup of nations in 1956 in Sudan.Al-Hilal and El-Merreikh are the strongest teams in Sudan other teams like Khartoum , El-Neel,Hay -AL Arab starting to being a big teams in Sudan.The Khartoum League is consisered to be the oldest league in Africa .The Sudan National Football Team parcipated in the 1972 Olympics Games in Munich .Handball,basketball and volleyball are popular in Sudan. Athletics had more succes for Sudan .
Sudanese clothing varies in different parts of Sudan with individual Sudanese wearing either traditional or western attire. A traditional garb widely worn in Sudan is the jalabiya which is a loose fitting dress accompanied with a large scarf worn by men and the thobe which is a long shirt worn by women.

Institutions of higher education in Sudan include:
Future University (formerly Computer Man College)
Academy of Medical Sciences
Ahfad University for Women
Bayan Science and Technology College
Mycetoma Research Centre
Omdurman Ahlia University
Omdurman Islamic University
Sudan University of Science and Technology
Alneelain University
University of Gezira
University of Khartoum with the national library
University of Kordofan


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History: Land of the oldest human civilization, kush or meroetic kingdom (800BC - 320 )
Location: An Afro-Arab country, situated in heart of Africa, dominated by river Nile
Capital: Khartoum
Area: 1.882 million sq. miles
Population: 36 million, with 2.6 % growth rate
Climate: Ranges between Tropical in South, desert in North
Currency: Sudanese Pound
Official language: Arabic, english as a second langauge
Religions: Islam, Christianity

Sudan Map